At times gruff, at times personable, he left little doubt he was the man in charge in almost any setting.
“A leader must be tough and strong enough so he can put an end to disputes and chaotic situations,” he wrote in his autobiography.
He was born in a farming community near Taipei on January 15, 1923, near the midpoint of Japan’s half-century colonial rule. The son of a Japanese police aide, he volunteered in the Imperial Japanese Army and returned to Taiwan as a newly commissioned second lieutenant to help man an anti-aircraft battery.
He earned degrees in Japan and Taiwan, as well as at Iowa State University and Cornell University in New York. He worked for the US-sponsored Joint Commission on Rural Reconstruction, which sought to encourage land reform and modernise Taiwanese agriculture.
In 1971, Lee joined the governing Nationalist Party. As a descendant of the people who migrated to the island from China in the 17th and 18th centuries, he was part of the party’s effort to broaden its base beyond the 1949 arrivals from the mainland. He was Taipei mayor, Taiwan province governor and vice-president before succeeding to the presidency in 1988.
In his early years as president, Lee met significant resistance from Nationalist hard-liners who favoured the party’s tradition of mainlander domination and resented Lee’s native status. He beat back the resistance, largely by giving his detractors important political positions.