Britain is thought to be paying about £15 ($29) per dose compared to £2.17 for AstraZeneca. The European Union is paying about €12 ($19) per Pfizer dose – less than the UK because it helped subsidised its development. Those prices were set in 2020 and competition for scarce vaccine supplies has only increased since.
If the Morrison government can get additional help from Pfizer, the next questions are how quickly it would arrive, and where from. While Pfizer has factories in the United States, most supply for Australia would likely come from Belgium and Germany.
Tough export controls established by the European Union have prevented Australia from importing 3.1 million AstraZeneca doses from the Continent.
In good news, though, Australia will likely have a much easier time getting approval for exports of Pfizer from Europe.
This is because Pfizer has largely met its supply contracts with the EU, so the bloc has no beef with the company and will not stand in the way of exports even while its own contracts continue to be met. It is often overlooked that the European Commission has approved the shipment of more than 1 million Pfizer doses to Australia in the months since it established new powers to block exports. Australian government sources say Pfizer doses have come into the country every week, almost without fail.
The main logistical implication of using more Pfizer is that the window between the first and second dose is about three weeks compared to 12 for AstraZeneca.
Morrison and Health Minister Greg Hunt were taken aback by Thursday’s advice by the Australian Technical Advisory Group on Immunisation (ATAGI) to offer an alternative dose to AstraZeneca for under 50s. The expert panel reached the conclusion after reviewing UK data which showed 1 out of every 250,000 people given the jab might develop a rare but potentially deadly blood disorder after being vaccinated.
Concerns focus on the young because they make up most of the cases of fatal blood clots in Europe.
Professor Greg Dore, an infectious diseases expert at the University of New South Wales’ Kirby Institute, says that even if clots formed at a rate of 1 in 100,000 vaccinated people, a 20-year-old could be jabbed every month for the next 40 years and have a 99.5 per cent chance of not getting a severe clot and 99.9 per cent chance of not dying from one.
Professor David Spiegelhalter, chair of the Winton Centre for Risk and Evidence Communication at Cambridge University, calculates that, based on current evidence, London’s Wembley Stadium could be filled with vaccinated people in their 20s and one person in the crowd would likely develop blood clotting.
The rate of blood clots in Germany is higher than the UK, for reasons still being investigated, which has prompted authorities there to restrict AstraZeneca for anyone aged under 60.
The European Union’s regulator this week said there was a link between the vaccine and the blood clots but cleared it for use on all age groups.
The UK drug regulator said AstraZeneca should not be used on people under 30 — an outcome some in the Australian government thought ATAGI might endorse. However Morrison had no choice but to follow ATAGI’s much more cautious decision because he spent most of this year talking about how much he values vaccine safety.
So how did ATAGI come up with a 50-year threshold when the UK picked 30? In some ways, Australia has been a victim of its own success because the chances of dying from COVID-19 are currently close to zero, meaning the risk — however small — of developing severe side effects from the vaccine might outweigh the benefits of being inoculated.
In the UK, where community transmission is still fairly high, the benefits of having the vaccine for those aged 30 and above clearly outweigh the chances of getting a life-threatening blood clot.
British authorities were also able to restrict AstraZeneca to under-30s with less disruption to its rollout because it has more options to fill the gap. The UK has rights to seven different alternatives to AstraZeneca, and two — Pfizer and Moderna — are in use already. Up to 30 million doses of the Johnson & Johnson jab might also be available from July, which would give Downing Street three alternatives to AstraZeneca for under-30s by the middle of the year.
Australia only has Pfizer for its under-50s right now, and Novavax might potentially come to the rescue later in the year. It might try to strike a supply agreement for the Johnson & Johnson or Moderna vaccines, but will not touch others made by China and Russia.
In the meantime, the Australian public will debate whether to take what is for the extraordinarily vast majority a safe and effective vaccine that can help bring the pandemic to an end.
ATAGI has not explicitly banned AstraZeneca for under-50s, but said Pfizer should be the preferred option. Adults under the age of 50 will only be given AstraZeneca “where the benefits are likely to outweigh the risks for that individual and the person has made an informed decision based on an understanding of the risks and benefits”.
It would be a good idea to keep some perspective when calculating the risks. Based on current UK data, the chances of dying from a rare blood clot following an AstraZeneca dose stands at about 1 in a million. The risk of dying in a car crash is about 1 in 6700.
What in the World
Bevan Shields is the Europe correspondent for The Sydney Morning Herald and The Age.